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gg                                                                  TAI OKOUP.

The relationship of the Ablative case is indicated by prefixing Ink or luk-tam, as in
tok po-lung, from a father; luk-tdm Dhomrdm, from Bhaniram; Ink-tarn Kashmir, (how
far is it to here) from Kashmir.

Tarn means 'place', and lult probably means the same. Luk-tsm, like the Shan fcffi-«, is a couplet
meaning, literally, * place'. Hence it means the source of an action, and is used to mean «from* In Shan ha-ti
as meaning ' place', also means the place or object to which motion is directed. It is hence need also as a prefix
of the Dative, and whether the Ablative or the Dative is meant has to be determined from the context In
Khamia luh is used as the prefix of the Ablative.

The relationship of the Genitive is indicated by the juxtaposition of the governed
and governing word, the governed word being placed last. Thus, kip khau, husk rice
i.e.} husk of rice; an phuk ma, saddle white horse, the saddle of the white horse,

This order of words to express the genitive is typical of all the Tai languages It also occurs in the M(Jn-
Khmer languages including Khassi, but in the Tibeto-Burman languages it is reversed.

In a few instances in the specimens the genitive precedes the governing noun, I am
unable to explain how this occurs. The rule is so universal in its application that I am
inclined to suspect mistakes on the part of the translator. The instances are,—

Jcau po-mdn run, I father house, my father's house.   Here kau precedes instead
of following po-mdn, and po-mdn, which is also in the genitive precedes run.

man run, (in) he house, in his house.   Here man precedes »unm

tlmdn run, place he house, to his house.   Here man again precedes run.

bow eh<w run, former owner house, former owner's house.   Here chau precedes


po man rm, father thou house, thy father's house.   Here po man, thy father, is
according to rule ; but it should follow, not precede, run.

It may be noted that in each of these examples, the main governing word is the same, run, a house, and
this may have something to say to it. In Shan, however, we find sentences like hun kun-chu nan, house men
those, the house of those men, which is according to rule.

The most usual way of expressing the Locative case is to employ the noun by itjself,
leaving the meaning to be gathered from the context. Thus,

Jiait mitng-bdn tdJs-ip-tdJe dk-jau, (in) that country famine arose.
wmg-tdttg mu chi-rdp-chdp-Jchdp-bai, put (on) hand a ring.

rau-Jco Mt-mun hit-khun u chau hoi, we rejoicing merry-making been heart have,
we have been rejoicing (in) heart.

M'bdn, said, day, (on) the day referred to.

The force of the Xocative is made explicit by the use of an appropriate verb of
motion, Thus,

-ai luk-mdn nti-din shau u-Jcoi, the elder son field enter been-has, the elder son
had entered the field* i.e., was in the field. Here it is impossible to say
whether shau should be considered as a postposition or as a verb,—a typical
example of Tai idiom. Similarly we have,—
man-ko rttn Im ma-Jchaut he house not came-enter, he did not come into the
house. Here khau is part of the compound verb ma-khau, but that is only an
accident of its position, If if had been after run, it would have been a post-
position meaning 'in',